Location and Size:
Kaithal district is somewhat compact shaped having geographical area of 2,317.00 sq. kms. (containing 104.30 sq. kms of urban area and 2212.70 sq. kms of rural area) which makes 5.24 percent of the State area. It lies between 29°30’00” North to 30°11’19” North and 76°09’20” East to 76°41’19” East. It makes north western boundary with Punjab State. To its southwest lies Jind district, bounded by Karnal district in its south east and Kurukshetra district lies on its north-east side.
Generally the slope of the district is from north east to south west, the direction in which most of the rivers/nadis of the area flow down. It is gently sloping plain area however, we can divide the region into three physiographic divisions on the basis of minor variations: Ghaggar Flood Plain, Bet Kaithal and Kaithal Plain. Ghaggar Flood Plain covers northern and northwestern parts of Guhla tahsil. The flood plain is gently sloping towards southwest in which direction the Ghaggar river flows. The soils are river borne sand soft loam and silty clay. The region is fertile and suitable for producing variety of crops. Bet Kaithal lies to the south of Ghaggar Flood Plain extending over southern part of the Guhla tahsil. It is drained by Saraswati River. Loam and coarse: loam type of soils are found in the region. Kaithal Plain extends over lower half of the district covering whole of Kaithal tahsil. It is a Bhangar area. It contains carbonate of lime at very deep layers, usually in the form of nodules called kankar. The soil is granular and has a low water holding capacity