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History

Introduction

Kaithal came to existence as district of Haryana in 1989. Kaithal district is situated in the North- West of the state. Its North-West boundaries which include Guhla- Cheeka is attached to Punjab State. It has Kurukshetra in North and Nissing, Assandh area of Karnal district. Kaithal is attached to Jind in South and to Karnal in East. Myths say that Kaithal was established by Lord Yudhistra during Mahabharta era. Hanuman, the head of Lord Rama’s ‘wanar Sena’ is supposed to born in Kaithal. The famous ‘Anjani Ka Tilla’ in the name of Hanuman’s mother is also situated in Kaithal the historical monuments as the cultural heritage reflect its ancient prosperity. Kaithal District possesses rich cultural and historical heritage and surrounded by seven ponds and eight gates. Kaithal has been a famous market of Uttar Pradesh since ancient times. People of Kaithal have been a significant and struggling role since the empire of Mughals and Pathans. Famous Mangol intruder Changej Khan came to India. Many Mangol rehabilitated in India instead of going back. Many Saiyad resided in Kaithal during this era and soon became the centre of these Mushlim scholars and councilors. Famous Historian jiaulldin himself was impressed from these Saiyads of Kaithal.

The local people assassinated Razia Begum, the daughter of Eltutmus alongwith her husband Ikhagudin on Nov. 13, 1240. The Tomb of Rajia Begam is still found here. Sikh Guru Har Ray honored the then King Bhai Desu Singh as the symbol of Bhagat after then the administrator of Kaithal were called as Bhai and till 1843 B.C. Bhai Udey Singh ruled over Kaithal and proved as the last King. Bhai Udey Singh died on 14 March 1843. Peoples of Kaithal took active part in ‘freedom struggle’ in 1857.

Presently Kaithal is spread over 2317 Sq. K.m. Geographical area. Its total population according to 2001 census is 945631, 80.61% population reside in villages whereas 19.39% population reside in cities. There are 277 villages and 253 Punchayats in Kaithal districts. Kaithal district consists of two sub-divisions two tehsils namely Kaithal & Guhla & five sub-tehsils namely Pundri, Rajaund, Dhand, Kalayat and Siwan. The name of Kaithal, Pundri, Pharal, Siwan and Kalayat show that the soil of Kaithal has been religious and cultural rich heritage.

The British attached Kaithal on April 10, 1843 after the death of Bhai Udey Singh. His mother queen ver Sahab Kaur and his widow Suraj Kaur along with warrior Tek Singh compelled the British to take back, but after five days Maharaja Patiala withdraw his support and the British defeated the queen on April 15, 1843 and established their empire. The news of Victory of Kaithal was also sent to Queen Victoria and Tek Singh was sentenced to ‘Kala Pani’ (Black water).

The peoples of Kaithal took active part in the struggle of 1857 and stopped giving land tax to Britishers. The British started ‘daman Chakra’ and hanged various people of Kaithal. Lt. Pearson and captain Machnol has to face a great resistance to trample the revolt Kaithal has to face many problems from 1883 to 1901. But the native of Kaithal took active part in the ‘freedom struggle’ by facing the calamities with strong determination.

Information of historical Religious places of Kaithal is as under:

1. History of Kaithal

Basically myths say that King Yudhistra established Kaithal during Mahabharta era. The history of Kaithal word is also found in Ancient History. All Historians believe that name of Kaithal is derived from Kapisthala. Kapisthala means the place of Mokeys. A great number of Monkeys were found here. According to Purana the hero of ‘Wanar Sena’ lord Hanuman was also born in Kaithal. The great ‘Tilla of Anjani’ is also situated here which is named after his mother Anjani.

The famous Chinese Pilgrim Hunstang and Fiahan visited Kaithal alongwith Kurukshetra. The Splendour of Kaithal was on its top during the reign of Hursha. In Ancient Times the Gujjars, Chandela, Khillgis, Tuglakas, Bloochs and Ajgans ruled over India. The people have a significant struggling role during the reign of Pathanas and Mughals. The famous Maugal intruder Changej Khan came to India but many Maugals resided in India instead of going back. During the time many Sayaids made their houses in Kaithal and soon became the centre of Mushlim scholars and councilors.

The local people assassinated Rajia Begam, the daughter of Ellutmus along with her husband. Ikhayarudin on 13 Nov. 1240. The Tomb of Rajia Sultana is still found in Kaithal. But due to the ignorance of people it has come to ruins. The Sultan of Khillaji Dynsty, Badsaha Ullaudin ruled over Kaithal before coming to Sultan of Delhi. In 1938 Nadir Shah ruled over Kaithal after the battle of Panipat since 1756 to 1761 as the king of Afgan. Still there is a village Patti Afgan situated on Gulha-Cheeka Road.

The Sikh rulers known as Bhai ruled over Kaithal from 1763 B.C. to 1843 B.C. Bhai Gubhaks Singh founded his empire. His successor Bhai Desa Singh founded this empire by snatching it from the clutches of Afgans. His son Bhai Lal Singh surrendered before British and accepted their supremacy. His eldest son Partap Singh became the ruler after his death in 1818 B.C. In 1818 his brother Bhai Udey Singh took over the throne. He ruled till 1843 without failure. The monuments of buildings built by him are still found here and the letter by written by him

in Pharsi are still safe in museum in Patiala. The splendour of kaithal was on the top during his reign. Famous poet Bhai Santokh singh was the poet in his court. His famous work included Nanak Prakash, Atam Puran, and Guru partap Suraj. He wrote at least one lac Salokas during his lifetime which still exists. He also translated Balmiki Ramayana and created Great Kirti (Guru Partap Suraj). The importance of Kaithal is shown in Balmiki Ramayana as under:-

1. How to reach Kaithal

(1) By Bus: It is very easy to reach Kaithal by bus through Hissar, Chandigarh state highway. It has distance of 120 k.m. from state Capital Chandigarh, Guhla the sub-division of Kaithal is attached to Punjab boundary. It is very easy to reach any area of Punjab through this road by bus. It is directly attached to Delhi, the National capital by bus route 120 k.m. There is a direct bus service for Dubawali, Sirsa from here from which you can enter the Rajasthan boundary.

(2) By Railway: Kaithal railway station is situated between Kurukshetra and Narwana branch line of railway. It is very easy to reach Delhi very comfortably either from Kurukshetra or Narwana.

1. Vidhikyar Sarovar

‘Vidhikayar Sarovar’ is one of the most famous historical and religious places. According to myths a poor business man named Vidhu who took responsibility of building this sarovar. He remained worried about the digging of the pond. It is said that at night he heard godly voice which said to him, “Start digging the pond and don’t worry about the expenditures”. The next morning when the digging was started, many gold coins were found from the pond. Vidhu built many temples round the pond because many gold coins were left out after digging the pond completely. After that this Sarovar was named as ‘vidhikyar’. That is why this pond is associated to people’s religions feelings. The ruined fort on the bank of Vidhikyar built by Bhai Desu Singh is one of the most important historical and cultural heritages of Kaithal. On the North side of this Sarovar. The building was built by British. This building is the unique symbol of prevailing western art. Now-a-days, this building is being used as the office of sub-divisional Magistrate.

The building by British time, various temples of gods and goddesses, Nehru Park which has the tombs of Saha kamal Kadari and Kadari Sikandar give a religious and historical. Importance to this Sarovar.

1. Gurudawara Neem Sahab

This Gurudwara is situated near Partap Gate. The Nineth Sikh Guru Teg Bahadur along with his family reached here in Kartik Badi Saka Sanwat 1723 in ‘Tandihar Tiratha’. It is said that Guruji after morning bath went to meditate under a neem tree. His followers began to have a look of Guruji one of them suffered from acute fever. Guruji gave him leaves of neem to eat and he got well after eating there leaves. After a long time a Gurudwara was constructed on this place which was known as Gurudawara Neem Sahab. After that this Gurudwara was associated with the religious feeling of people. People from all community come here for prayer and earn ‘Punaya’ by taking a holy dip in the sarovar built in this Gurudwara. The Sarovar is attached to this Gurudwara attract people.

1. Phalgoo Tirth

Pharal is quite an ancient village. The famous Phalakivana mentioned in Mahabharta and Puranas is on this place and perhaps on this basis this place was popularized as Pharal. Phalakivana and Phalaki Tirth is situated on the bank of river ‘Drishdatli’ Adhishom Krishan from the Padvas made ‘Tap’ here for two years. This was very dear to gods. Here they made ‘Tap’ for centuries.

1. Sh. Gyarah Rudari Shiv Mandir

Sh. Gyarah Rudri Shiv Temple of Mahabharat’s time is situated in the Chandana gate of Kaithal city. This temple is popular for its religious and architectural (aristocratic) favourism throughout the country. It is believed that Sh. Gyarah Rudari Shiv Mandir is ranked same status after Kanshi. This temple was constructed by Dharam Raj Yudhistra to fulfill his religious will.

It is faith that Lord Shiva was worshipped by Arjuna to get special (Pashupat) weapon. The people believe that Pandvas were upset with the destruction after Mahabharat’s war. Then Lord Krishana suggested to establish Nav Garah Pujjan by Dharam Raj Yudhistra, he set up Navgarah kund at Kaithal. These Kunds were Surya Chander, Mangal, Budha, Baraspatti, Shukra, Shani, Rahu, Ketu and at the same time these ancient temples were made. This temple was laid down by Andhya 250 years before some other historic facts describe this temple was constructed by Bhai Udya Singh’s wife.

This old structure of the temple contains Shiv Linga with Lords Gyarah (eleven) Avtaras and Nanadi.

1. Ambkeswar Mahadev Mandir

This temple was in existence before the time of Mahabharta. The Shivlinga came of this temple is also known as ‘Pataleshwer and ‘swayamkinga’ According to historical facts, Pirthivi Raj Chauhan and his army sheltered here at the time of war with Mohamood Gauri and the king of Shilla Khera rehabilitated this temple. As a result Pirthvi Raj Chauhan defeated Mohamood Gauri sixteen times.

According to a myth, the Muslims tried to break the shivlinga in Ambkeswer temple but it is said that when they attacked the Linga, blood started flowing from it and the Mushlims got frightened to see it. The marks of attack can be visualised even today. There is a man leveled statue of Goddess Kali or Ambika in this temple.

1. Devi Mandir Fatehpur

An ancient temple of goodness Madumati is situated in Fatehpur village. According to a resident of village Fatehpur, Sh. Suraj Walia that his ancestor Bir Singh Ahluwalia saw goddess Madumati in dream and said that she was lying the pond of Mohna village for a long time, *come and took me away* Bir Singh said that the pond was a big and large one and it was impossible to locate the statue of goddess. After some days goddess again appeared in his dream and said he would come on the pond along with villagers. She would strike his feet and took me out. The statue of goddess was established at that place. This place is known as Devi Mandir Fatehpur. A big fair is organized here every year and people come for the darshan of goddess.

1. Symbal of Hindu- Muslim unity –HAZARAT BABA SHAH KAMAL KADRI and SIDH BABA SHEETAL PURI JI MAHARAJ.

Mazar of Hazrat Baba Shaha Kamal Kadri is a living example of Hindu-Muslim unity, situated in Jawahar park of Kaithal city. A large crowd of people come here on Thursday. One Mazar belong to Hazart Baba Shah Kamal and another belongs to his grandson Shah Sikander Kadri. Here people take a vow and pay their regard. It is surprising fact a Hindu, Late. Roshan Lal Gupta took care of these Mazars for 25 years.

1. Shitla Mata Mandir

There is a famous Kund (pond) out of Navagarh Kunds build during Mahabharta times, On the bank of this Kund, there stands a temple of Shitla Mata. The famous Mata Gate was also named after it. People worship Goddess shitla with sweet Dalia, Gulgule, Batase, Rice and earthen lamps to get rid of Chicken Pox. Before partition the Muslim Jogi used to worship in this temple big fair is organized here on the Amavasya of Chaitra month. A great number of pilgrims from Punjab and Haryana come here and perform the ‘Mundan’ of their children.

The Bazigars worship here believing the goddess as Kali Mata. In the same campus, a fair in the name of Phool made is organized weekly every Thursday.

1. Kapil Muni Mandir Kalayat

This place is situated on the state highway no. 65 between Kaithal and Narwana. Every year a fair is organised on the Puranmasi of kartika month in the memory of Kapil Muni. There is a large pond. Hundreds of people gather here.

This place is known as Kapil Muni Ashram. Time to time a lot of Mahatma and Saints took birth on this land of Rishies and Munis. This place having a population of 25,000 has its own importance. Maharshi Kapil Muni performed great tapsya here and established ‘Sankhya Darshan’. After that this place was known as Kapilayat and then Kalayat. King Saliwan built many temples here. These temples have a architectural value and importance.

This town has association with Mahabharta as well. It is known that the village Kharak Pandwa and Ramgarh were established as the Camps of Pandvas Army. The coin and idols found in the ponds are its solid proof. “Ancient Temple-Chaywan Rishi splendid Temple is situated in CHAUSHALA village, in the memory of Chaywan Rishi, from 40 Km away from KAITHAL city and in the south side of city. Every year, fairs are organized on FALGUN Sudi and on Sawan Sudi on two Sundays, because Chaywan Rishi made deep meditation and at the time of meditation, so much soil was covered on his body that no part of his body was visible except his eyes and body was like a heap of soil. At this time Maharaja Shiryati reached there with his army and family and camped for rest. King Shiryati’s daughter with her friends came there walking were Chaywan Rishi was meditating, the girl Sukanya, saw wrack of two eyes in the heap of soil and she pricked a straw in both of eyes turn by turn and blood came from that sparkle and she was surprised when she saw this, she felt afraid and came to her parents. The whole family and army were in deep pain before she reached home. King Shiryati was anxious for the reason of this pain. The girl told the king that she has made a great mistake. She pricked a straw in the heap of soil in shining place from where blood came out. King Shiryati understands that this is the sacred land of Rishies and a Rishi may be meditating here and this is the reason of this aguish.

King Shiryati came there with his daughter where Rishi was meditating and his whole body was covered with earth. He begged pardon for the mistake of his daughter and his daughter was married to Chaywan Rishi. Chaywan Rishi was aged and the girl was young. During this Ashwani Kumar, Vaidhya, came there and he noticed that the man is aged and woman is young. Vaidhya Ashwani Kumar, prepared a medicine immediately and gave it to Chaywan Rishi. After using it he became young again. Later on, this medicine became famous as Chaywan Prash.

Every year about 50,000 people came here to pay tribute and grand fairs are held on moonlit night Sunday in the month of Falgun and Sawan.

1. Kaithal-an Introduction

Kaithal came to existence as district of Haryana in 1989. Kaithal district is situated in the North- West of the state. Its North-West boundaries which include Guhla- Cheeka is attached to Punjab State. It has Kurukshetra in North and Nissing, Assandh area of Karnal district. Kaithal is attached to Jind in South and to Karnal in East. Myths say that Kaithal was established by Lord Yudhistra during Mahabharta era. Hanuman, the head of Lord Rama’s ‘wanar Sena’ is supposed to born in Kaithal. The famous ‘Anjani Ka Tilla’ in the name of Hanuman’s mother is also situated in Kaithal the historical monuments as the cultural heritage reflect its ancient prosperity. Kaithal District possesses rich cultural and historical heritage and surrounded by seven ponds and eight gates. Kaithal has been a famous market of Uttar Pradesh since ancient times. People of Kaithal have been a significant and struggling role since the empire of Mughals and Pathans. Famous Mangol intruder Changej Khan came to India. Many Mangol rehabilitated in India instead of going back. Many Saiyad resided in Kaithal during this era and soon became the centre of these Mushlim scholars and councilors. Famous Historian jiaulldin himself was impressed from these Saiyads of Kaithal.

The local people assassinated Razia Begum, the daughter of Eltutmus alongwith her husband Ikhagudin on Nov. 13, 1240. The Tomb of Rajia Begam is still found here. Sikh Guru Har Ray honored the then King Bhai Desu Singh as the symbol of Bhagat after then the administrator of Kaithal were called as Bhai and till 1843 B.C. Bhai Udey Singh ruled over Kaithal and proved as the last King. Bhai Udey Singh died on 14 March 1843. Peoples of Kaithal took active part in ‘freedom struggle’ in 1857.

Presently Kaithal is spread over 2317 Sq. K.m. Geographical area. Its total population according to 2001 census is 945631, 80.61% population reside in villages whereas 19.39% population reside in cities. There are 283 villages and 270 Punchayats in Kaithal districts. Kaithal district consists of two sub-divisions two tehsils namely Kaithal & Guhla & five sub-tehsils namely Pundri, Rajaund, Dhand, Kalayat and Siwan. The name of Kaithal, Pundri, Pharal, Siwan and Kalayat show that the soil of Kaithal has been religious and cultural rich heritage.

1. DISTRICT KAITHAL AT A GLANCE

Sr.No
Particular Rural Urban Total
01. Areas in Sq. K.M. 2232 85 2317
02. Population as per Census 2001
Male             Female
510513         435618
762649
(80.61)
183482
(19.39)
946131
03. Sex Ratio (female per 1000) 852 856 853
04. Literacy Ratio 43.25% 63.90% 47.31%
05. House Holds 130775 33483 164258
06. Total Divisions
02
Kaithal & Guhla
07. Total Tehsils
03
Kaithal, Guhla & Pundri
08. Total Sub Tehsils
04
Kalayat, Rajound, Siwan & Dhand
09. Market Committees
07
Cheeka, Kaithal, Kalayat, Pundri, Dhand, Pai & Siwan
10. M.Cs
04
Kaithal, Kalayat, Pundri & Cheeka
11. Blocks
06
Guhla, Kaithal, Kalayat, Pundri, Rajound & Siwan.
12. Total Villages (Revenue)
276
13. Total Panchayats
268

Kaithal's ancient show-case

Vedas are the most ancient scriptures not only of the Aryans but all the human race . These treasure-troves of knowledge are the oldest source to seek information about the old history, living standards, behavioral attitude and aptitude of all humanity. It will be a very joyful journey to get knowledge about their writing period and place , To gain information about rivers , rivulets, village's herbs and flora-fauna of that period is a natural reason to become awful. Moreover, it will provide pleasure to know about this magnanimous heritage of the ancestors of 'Brahmavarta' To fix the writing-period of the hymns of Rigveda, different Ideologists have propounded different theories. Dr. Mazmudar says that Rigveda was written 1200 Vi. Pu. i.e. 3200 years ago. But no Indian scholar agrees. Pt. Balkrishna Dixit, a famous astrologer, says on the basis of Shatpatha Brahmana that it was written 3500 Vi. Pu. Lokmanya Balgangadhar Tilak accepts its writing age 6000-4000 Vi. Pu. Quoting "Rigvedic India" by Dr. Avinashchander Dass, Dr. Baldev Upadhyaya in his work "Vedic Sahitya aur Samskriti opines" on the basis of geographical and archaeological happenings, Rigveda and the origin of the culture of that time should be at least 25,000 years B.C. Late Shri Dr. Vishnu Shridhar Vakankar has accepted his theory in his research articles.

Generally it can be said that the writing period of Rigveda is not that old as western scholars think. It is very true on the basis of rock edicts and engravings that the origin of pre-Harappan and Saraswata civilisations happened before ten thousand years. Kaithal was an important town on the flowing-path of river Saraswati. So, its situation-period can be logically construed before ten thousand years. In this context, it must be kept in mind that the situation of "Apaya" river, a sub-river of Saraswati has been referred in the third Mandala of Rigveda 3/23/4.

1. Page 87
2. Vedic Saraswati Nadi Shodha Abhiyana-Page 8.

As per the verse this rainy-seasonal river is one mile away in east from Manusa sanctum, which is close to `Maheshwara Deva'in Asthipura. It is quite important to be noted that the situation of "Apaya" river, one mile away from "Manusa sanctum", near Kaithal is very true because near west of Kaithal, the location of "Apaya" and Apaga and Manusa Tirtha has been recognised by `Mahabharata' and `Vamana Purana' both respectively.

1. In Ist Mandala also reference of `Apana' and `Manusha' comes.
2. Drisadvatyama manusha apayayama saraswatyam sevadagne didiha.

In this part of hymn, Vedic saint establishes "Agni" (Fire) in `Manusa' sanctum situated on the bank of `Apaya', so `Kapisthala' writing place of Kathasamhita, Kaithal or its nearest area, exists here only. It is a proven fact that "Samkhya Darshana" (Philosophical Samkhya thought) propounded by Saint Kapila was also authored here.

1. Mahabharata-Chapter 83, Vanaparva. 2.Rigveda-1/23/4.

An indication can be given that 'Taittiriya Samhita' and "Taittiriya Upanishad" were also written in Titram village near Kaithal. Scholars say that this Samhita was written 4000-6000 years B.C.. Therefore, its compilation period is 6000 years B.C. Then Taittiriya Akanyaka and Taittiriya Upanishad were compiled 2000 years B.C. In this connection, a reference to Kathasamhita is also must. In Puranas, Kathaka people are famous with the name of `Madhyadeshiya or Madhyama'. It means that Kathaka>Katha>Katha/people were residing at Madhyadesha. But scholars express the possibility that Kathaka people, having ambition to reside in Anavristi or Brahmavasta started to live in the area of Kaithal-Pehowa-Kurukshetra, which is called today as Kithana or Kathayana. In Puranas we find the reference of "Shri Tirtha" situated on the sub-rivulet of Saraswati near village Kasan in Kaithal. The residences of Brahaman community belonging to Katha gotra (sub-caste) can be found in abundance in the nearby or adjacent areas. According to great grammarian Patanjali, the reading-teaching of Kathasamhita was prevalent in every village. "Grame Grame kathakam Kalapakam cha prochyate" - Mahabhasaya 4/3/101 Panini says that its writing was done by the Brahmans of Kapisthala gotra. Durgacharya in his Nirukta Commentary contemplates that the authors of this Samhita are Kapisthala Vashistha-Aham cha Kapisthalo Vasisthaha-Nirukta tika 4/4. Several scholars are of the view that possibly this name was of a particular place. This samhita was edited by Dr. Keith. His approximation is that Kapisthala village represents modern Kaithal village, situated in Kurukshetra, at a very small distance of river Saraswati. Kashika and Varahmihira also refer about this village in Brihata Samhita 14/4. Therefore, it will be more genuine and logical to say that Taittiriya Brahmana and Katha Samhita was produced in Kaithal only.

1. Dr. Baldev Upadhyaya - Vedic Sahitya and Samskriti - pages 132-133.
Let us assure that the time - winning works - Taittiriya katha and Kapisthala -Katha Samhitas the scribing place of Katha Samhita, Taittiriya upanisada and Kathopanisada, propounding the principles of Samkhya philosophy, were authored in Kapisthala>Kapisthala>Kaithal existing on the banks of river Saraswati. From the age-old culture of this area, the Indian Hindu culture is totally influenced.


Kaithal in Puranas

Till now we have described the antiquity of Kaithal from the material available in Vedic Samskrita literature but its aniquity has been described widely in other literature also. The author of Mahabharata and Shri Mad Bhagvat Purana, Maharsi Vedavyasa has widely written about antiquity of Kaithal and its nearby many pious and religious places :

"Kapilasya cha Kedaram samasadya sudurlabham !
Antardhanama avapnoti tapsa dagdhakilvisaha !!”
( Kedara of Kapila is unattainable.After meditation there all sins are destroyed and man attains the internal hidden knowledge).

Vaman Purana says :
"Kapisthaleti vikhyatam sarvapatakanashanam yasmina sthitaha swayam devovridha kedara samgjijitaha" (2)
(The destroyer of all devililsh deeds, famous Kapisthala sanctum is here because Lord Vridhakedara himself resides.)
It must be understood that Vridhakedara sanctum has become Vidkyara on the basis of philological principle of "mukhasukha" (easy to speak).

1. Mahabharata, Vanapurana, Chapter-83/74.
2. Vaman Purana Chapt er 36/24.

Furthermore, Durgacharya, the commentator of Nirukta, recognizes himself also a Kapisthala Vasistha i.e. a resident of Kapisthala, belonging to Vasistha gotra (Sub-Caste).

From Vedic age to Mahabharata and Vamana Purana Kaithal's ancient existence is a reality. Kaithal is as old as a vedic reer.

RTI