Keeping in view the great problem regarding consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene, The government started the central rural sanitation programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of rural people. With the broader concept of sanitation, CRSP adopted a demand driven approach with the name total sanitation campaign (TSC) with effect from 1999. The TSC was renamed as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) with effect from 01-04-2012.

Now NBA is being renamed as Swachh Bharat Mission-Gramin (SBM-G) from 2nd October 2014.

The main component id the SBM-G is as under

1. IHHL (Individual House Hold Latrine)
2. SLWM (Solid Liquid Waste Management)
3. CSC (Community Sanitary Complex)
4. ODF (Open Defecation Free)

1. IHHL (Individual House Hold Latrine):- Incentive as provided under the Mission for the construction of Individual House Hold Latrines (IHHL) shall be available for all Below Poverty Line (BPL) Households and Above Poverty Line (APL) Households restricted to SCs/STs, small and marginal farmers, landless labourers with homestead, physically handicapped and women headed households. The Incentive amount provided under SBM(G) to Below Poverty Line (BPL) /identified APLs households shall be up to Rs.12,000 for construction of one unit of IHHL and provide for water availability, including for storing for hand-washing and cleaning of the toilet. Central Share of this Incentive for IHHLs shall be Rs.9,000/- (75%) from Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). The State share will be Rs.3,000/-(25%).

2. SLWM (Solid Liquid Waste Management):- The objective of SBM(G) is to bring about improvement in the cleanliness, hygiene and the general quality of life in rural areas. Solid and Liquid Waste Management (SLWM) is one of the key components of the programme. To create clean villages, it is essential that the IEC interventions focus on Solid and Liquid Waste Management so as to create a felt need for these activities amongst the population. This must lead to the setting up of systems for the scientific disposal of waste in such a way that has a tangible impact on the population. The Community /Gram panchayat has to be motivated to come forward and demand for such a system, which they have to subsequently operate and maintain. Once the demand is created, to ensure that the resources are used efficiently, SLWM is to be taken up in project mode for each Gram Panchayat (GP) with financial assistance capped for a GP on number of household basis to enable all GPs to implement sustainable SLWM projects. The total assistance under SBM(G) for SLWM projects shall be worked out on the basis of total number of households in each GP, subject to a maximum of Rs.7 lakh for a GP having up to 150 households, Rs.12 lakh up to 300 households, Rs.15 lakh up to 500 households and Rs.20 lakh for GPs having more than 500 households. Funding for SLWM project under SBM(G) is provided by the Central and State Government in the ratio of 75:25. Any additional cost requirement is to be met with funds from the State/GP, and from other sources like Finance Commission funding, CSR, Swachh Bharat Khosh and through the PPP model.

3. CSC (Community Sanitary Complex):- Community Sanitary Complexes comprising an appropriate number of toilet seats, bathing cubicles, washing platforms, Wash basins etc, can be set up in a place in the village acceptable and accessible to all. Ordinarily such Complexes shall be constructed only when there is lack of space in the village for construction of household toilets and the Community/GP owns up the responsibility of their operation and maintenance and gives a specific demand for the same. Such Complexes can be made at Public places, markets, bus stands etc., where large scale congregation of people takes place. The maintenance of such Complexes is very essential for which Gram Panchayat should own the ultimate responsibility and the Operation and Maintenance should be assured. User families, in case of complexes specifically meant for households, may be asked to contribute a reasonable monthly user charge for cleaning & maintenance. The maximum support per unit prescribed for a Community Sanitary Complex is Rs.2 lakh. Sharing pattern amongst Central Government, State Government and the Community shall be in the ratio of 60:30:10. The Community contribution, however, can be made by the Panchayat out of its own resources, from grants of the Finance Commission, from any other fund of the State duly permitted by it, or from any other source as obtained from the State, District or GP. For, funding the CSCs/public toilets, states may also source additional funds from CSR/CSO/NGO for raising the cost of individual complexes. The mode may be Public Private Partnership (PPP)/VGF which should cater to the need of operation and maintenance of the facilities. Water supply to these CSCs will have to be assured under the NRDWP before a CSC is sanctioned.

4. ODF (Open Defecation Free):- After the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission, work of sanitation has accelerated in all the States. At the same time, in order to ensure quality of outcomes, two things have been emphasised. One, focus on behaviour change, and two, focus on making villages completely open defecation free (ODF) for health benefits to accrue (while continuing to respond to demand for individual toilets. Many GPs and villages have now begun to become ODF. In 2015-16, the States have planned to make 42828 GPs ODF, as per their AlPs. On MIS, a module has been initiated to capture GPs where 100% toilet access has been achieved. This number, as on 1st July, 2015 is 12,216. Across the country, from different States, information is being received regularly about different viliages/GPs declaring themselves ODF.

(Tip: Safe technology option means no contamination of surface soil, ground water or surface water; excreta inaccessible to flies or animals; no handling of fresh excreta; and freedom from odour and unsightly condition)"